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Soviet Union's T-70 light tank

Photos

T-70 light tank:
Soviet Union's T-70 Light Tank
Aberdeen Tank Museum

T-70 light tank:
Soviet Union's T-70 Light Tank
Aberdeen Tank Museum
T-70 light tank:
Soviet Union's T-70 Light Tank
T-70 light tank:
Soviet Union's T-70 Light Tank
T-70 light tank:
Soviet Unions' T-70 Light Tank

Design

The T-70 was designed by, N. A. Astrov, who wanted to create a light tank that had more armor, a larger gun, and better cross country capabilities than the T-60.1,6

Though the T-70 was a decent design, many felt it wasn't an improvement over the T-60.1

The turret was place on the left side.1,9 Two engines were mounted in tandem on the right side.1,9 Each engine drove a track.1 The differential and main clutch were united with the engines in one block. The T-70's idler was in the rear and the power in the front.1

In September 1942, strengthened running gear was installed.2 The tracks were widened to 300 mm, and the road wheels and return rollers were made wider.2 The drive wheels and drive shafts were improved.2

Main Armament

The 45 mm gun fired a 3.2 lb APHE shell at a muzzle velocity of 2,500'/sec.9

Crew

The turret could only hold one man, the commander who also was the loader and gunner for the 45 mm gun.2 There were some attempts to install an automatic loader for the 45 mm but these were unsuccessful.2

The driver had an armored visor installed.

Crews didn't like the tank as its fuel tanks were easy to ignite.9

Engine

Starting in September 1943 the T-70s started to receive the GAZ-203 engine (85 HP).2

Production

In March 1942 the T-70 was accepted for production.1

Factories No. 37 and No. 38 at the Gorki Automobile Works produced the tanks and were sometimes built alongside the T-60s.

  • T-70: >8,00010, 8,2261, 8,2663,6
    • Manufacturer: Soviet arsenals9
    • Production: March 1942 - October 19431,3, ? - October 19436, ? - 194310
      • 1942: 4,8831,2
      • 1943: 3,3431,2

Variants

  • T-70 (Model 1942): January 1942 started to replace T-607. Some chassis used to mount 1 or 2 SU-37 AA guns. Rear of turret is rounded.
  • T-70A (Model 1943): In September 1943 armor was increased and more powerful engines. Rear of turret was squared off. Production ceased in October 1943.
  • SU-122, SU-762: Factory No. 92 in Gorki and No. 38 in Kirov developed a self-propelled version of the T-70 designed by the bureaus of Generals Petrov and Grabin.2 It was lengthened and widened.2 It was to mount the 76.2 mm ZIS-3 divisional cannon.2 In December 1942 it was redesignated the SU-76.2

Usage

The T-70s were primarily used for infantry support and reconnaissance.10

Kursk

Of the 870 Soviet tanks at Prokhorovka, 261 of them were T-70s.1

Specifications

  T-70
Crew Commander6, driver6
24,5,6,7,8,9,10
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 20,608 lb10
9.05 tons5,7, 9.2 tons6,8, 10 tons4, 10.1 tons9
9,367 kg10
Length 14' 0.9"6,10, 14' 1"9, 15.28'5,7
4.29 m6,10, 4.42 m4
Height 6.78'7, 6' 8"9, 6' 8.3"6,10, 7.5'5
2.04 m6,10, 2.08 m4
Width 7" 7.3"6,10, 7' 8"9, 7.68'5,7
2.32 m6,10, 2.47 m4
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 12"9
0.3 m4
Ground contact length 10' 3"2
Ground pressure 0.7 kg/cm2 4
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 45 mm L/464
45 mm L/46 A/TK7
45 mm5,6,8,9,10
Secondary  
MG 7.62 mm MG6,10
MG4,5,7
7.62 mm DT MG9
MG - coaxial 7.62 mm MG8
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 66 - 707, 709, 904, 94
Secondary  
MG 9454,7,9
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 10 - 605,10
Hull Front, Upper 1.37-1.77"@0°9
35 - 407, 454
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 0.6"@0°9
167, 454
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 1"@0°9, 354
Hull Top 104,7
Hull Bottom 104,7
Turret Front 1.37"@0°9
10 - 607, 604
Turret Sides 1.37"@0°9
354
Turret Rear 354
Turret Top 104
Engine (Make / Model) GAZ 2034
2: GAZ-2026,10
2: 215-2022
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Water9
Cylinders 2 x 67,9
Capacity  
Net HP 2 x 705,7,8
1406,9,10
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) 4 forward, 1 reverse4,9
Steering Clutch brake9
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline5,6,9,10
Octane  
Quantity 96.8 gallons9, 116 gallons, 127 gallons
480 liters4
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road 21 mph9, 28 mph6,10, 32 mph5,7
45 kph4,6,10
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 223.7 miles6,10, 279 miles7, 280 miles9
360 km4,6,10
Range - Cross Country 186 miles7
180 km4
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth 2' 3.6"6, 3'9
0.7 m6, 0.9 m4
Trench crossing 5' 1"9, 10' 2.8"6,10
3.12 m6,10
Vertical obstacle 2' 2"9, 2' 3.6"10
0.7 m10
Climbing ability 34° slope9
Suspension (Type) Torsion Bar4,8
Christie type coil spring torsion arm9
Wheels each side 54,8,9
Return rollers each side 38,9
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width 11", 1' 5.5"7,9
260 mm, 300 mm4
Diameter  
Number of links 919
Pitch  
Tire tread Rubber4,8,9
Track centers/tread 62.5"9
  T-70A
Crew 21,2,3,7
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 9 tons9, 10 tons7
9,200 kg3
Length 14' 1"3, 15.48'7
4.29 m3
Height 6.66'7, 6' 8"3
2.04 m3
Width 7' 7"3, 8.1'7
2.32 m3
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length 10' 3"2
Ground pressure  
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 45 mm L/463
45 mm L/46 A/TK7
Secondary  
MG MG7
MG - coaxial  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 947
Secondary  
MG 1,0087
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 10 - 453
Hull Front, Upper 35 - 457
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 167
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top 107
Hull Bottom 107
Turret Front 10 - 707
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model) 2: GAZ-2022,3
GAZ-203
2: GAZ-2032
Bore / stroke  
Cooling  
Cylinders 2 x 62
Capacity  
Net HP 2 x 852
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type)  
Octane  
Quantity  
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road

28 mph3,7
45 kph3

Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 260 miles7
Range - Cross Country 175 miles7
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth  
Trench crossing  
Vertical obstacle  
Climbing ability  
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width 1' 5.5"2
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  
  T-70 1942
Crew 21,2,3
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 9.2 tons2, 9.79 tons1
9,950 kg1
Length 15' 2"1
4.29 m2, 4.66 m1
Height 6' 9"1
2.05 m2, 2.1 m1
Width 7' 8"1
2.42 m2, 2.52 m1
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 0.3 m2
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure 0.67 kg/cm2 2
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 45 mm 19382
45 mm1
Secondary  
MG 7.62 mm MG1
MG - coaxial 7.62 mm DT MG2
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 70-902
Secondary  
MG 9452
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm)  
Hull Front, Upper 451
35-452
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 451
162
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 152, 351
Hull Top 101
10-152
Hull Bottom 101
10-152
Turret Front 352, 60
Turret Sides 351,2
Turret Rear 351,2
Turret Top 101,2
Engine (Make / Model) 2: GAZ-2022,3
Bore / stroke 4 stroke2
Cooling  
Cylinders 2 x I-62
Capacity  
Net HP 2 x 70@3,400 rpm2
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type)  
Octane  
Quantity 440 liters2
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road 31 mph1
45 kph2, 50 kph1
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 2801 miles, 224 miles1
350 km2, 4501 km, 360 km1
Range - Cross Country 112 miles1
180 km1
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth 0.9 m2
Trench crossing 1.7 m2
Vertical obstacle 0.65 m2
Climbing ability 35°2
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width  
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  
  T-70 1943
Crew 21,2,3
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 9.8-10 tons2
Length 4.42 m2
Height 2.08 m2
Width 2.47 m2
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 0.3 m2
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure 0.51 kg/cm2 2
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 45 mm 19382
Secondary  
MG  
MG - coaxial 7.62 mm DT MG2
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 70-902
Secondary  
MG 9452
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm)  
Hull Front, Upper 35-452
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 162
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 162
Hull Top 10-152
Hull Bottom 10-152
Turret Front 601,2
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear 35
Turret Top 10
Engine (Make / Model) GAZ-2032
Bore / stroke 4 stroke2
Cooling  
Cylinders 2 x I-62
Capacity  
Net HP 2 x 85@3,600 rpm2
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type)  
Octane  
Quantity 480 liters2
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road 45 kph2
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 250-300 km2
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth 0.9 m2
Trench crossing 1.7 m2
Vertical obstacle 0.65 m2
Climbing ability 35°2
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width  
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  

Sources:

  1. Russian Tanks of World War II Stalin's Armored Might, by Tim Bean & Will Fowler, 2002
  2. Russian Tanks and Armored Vehicles 1917-1945, by Wolfgang Fleischer, 1999
  3. The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles - The Comprehensive Guide to Over 900 Armored Fighting Vehicles From 1915 to the Present Day, General Editor: Christopher F. Foss, 2002
  4. Panzer Truppen The Complete Guide to the Creation and Combat Employment of Germany's Tank Force 1943-1945, Thomas L. Jentz, 1996
  5. Tanks of the World, 1915-1945, Peter Chamberlain, Chris Ellis, 1972
  6. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Chris Bishop, 1998
  7. Airfix Magazine Guide 22 Russian Tanks of World War 2, John Milsom and Steve Zaloga, 1977
  8. Tanks of World War II, Duncan Crow, 1979
  9. Tank Data 2, Aberdeen Proving Grounds Series, E. J. Hoffschmidt and W. H. Tantum IV, 1969
  10. Armored Fighting Vehicles, 300 of the World's Greatest Military Vehicles, Philip Trewhitt, 1999
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