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United States' M5 light tank, Stuart Mk VI

Photos

M5 Light Tank turret basket12:
United States' M5 Light Tank, Stuart, turret basket
U.S. Ordnance Dept.

M5 Light Tank traversing mechanism12:
United States' M5 Light Tank, mechanism
U.S. Ordnance Dept.

M5 Light Tank on exercise in 1944.
United States' M5 Light Tank on exercise in 1944

M5 Light Tank with the 7th US Army entering Neustadt a.d. Aisch, Germany on April 6, 1945.
United States' M5 Light Tank with the 7th US Army entering Neustadt a.d. Aisch, Germany on April 6, 1945.
M5 Light Tank in Germany in 1945.
United States' M5 Light Tank in Germany in 1945

M5 Light Tank:
United States' M5 Light Tank

M5 Light Tank12:
United States' M5 Light Tank
U.S. Ordnance Dept.

M5 Light Tank:
United States' M5 Light Tank

M5 Light Tank with the 761st Tank Battalion in Coburg, Germany, 21 April 1945
United States' M5 Light Tank with the 761st Tank Battalion

M5 Light Tank at the Patton Museum in Ft Knox, Kentucky
United States' M5 Light Tank at the Patton Museum in Ft Knox, Kentucky
Chris Bobo
M5 Light Tank gun mount12:
United States' M5 Light Tank, gun mount
U.S. Ordnance Dept.

M5 Light Tank:
United States' M5 Light Tank


M5 Light Tank:
United States' M5 Light Tank

Design

In the fall of 1941 Cadillac suggested to the Ordnance Department that they should try the M3 with a twin Cadillac engine due to radial engine shortages that were used by the aircraft industry.1,6,11 It was also to have the Cadillac Hydra-matic transmission that was used in automobiles.12

In February 1942 an M3A1 had 2 Cadillac liquid cooled V-8 car engines installed which meant that the rear deck had to be raised.11 Fuel tanks were put in the rear corners of the hull. Radiators were placed above the engines.

The flywheel in each engine was connected to the Hydra-Matic Transmission. Since the drive shaft from the Cadillac engines and the Hydra-Matic transmission, some of the traversing mechanisms and parts of the gun stabilizer were moved under the turret basket and this provided more room for the commander and gunner.12 The turret was extended in back to accommodate the radio.

A single cylinder engine supplied auxiliary power and charged the batteries.

Crew

The seats for the driver and assistant driver could be locked in any position.12 The seats went up under spring pressure and down under body weight.12 The driver and assistant driver had 360° periscopes in the roof of the hull.

Four escape hatches were provided.12

New Designation

It was originally going to be designated the M4 Light Tank, but it was decided to use M5 to avoid confusion with the M4 Medium.11

Armor

The M5's hull was welded armor plating with the front plate reinforced.12 The turret was also welded.12

Armament

The M5's 37 mm M6 gun could fire an APC shell at a muzzle velocity of 2,900'/sec.12 It's range was 12,850 yards.12 At 1,000 yards the M6 gun could penetrate 1.8" of armor.12

There was a gyrostabilizer which helped keep the gun at a fixed elevation during movement.12

Prototype

The Ordnance Board was convinced that a car engine would work, so Cadillac converted a tank and drove it for 500 miles at a testing ground.1 The test showed it to have a smooth ride and was easy to operate. The Ordnance Board was convinced and production commenced.1

Production

Standardized in February 1942.1 Production started in July 1942.
First production units were delivered at the end of March 1942.6,7

In July 1943, another Cadillac production facility in Southgate, California, and Massey-Harris in Racine, Wisconsin, also started production. When M3 production ceased in October 1943, American Car & Foundry started production of the M5.

  • M5 prototype: Cadillac Motor Car Division12
  • M5: 2,0747, 2,0751
    • Production: March 1942 - , May 1942 - December 19421
    • Manufacturer: Cadillac1, Massey Harris1
  • M5A1: 6,8101,7
    • Production: November 1941 - June 19441, December 1942 - June 19447:
    • Manufacturer: Cadillac1,9, Massey Harris1,9, American Car & Foundry1,9,10

Variants

  • M5:
  • M5A1:
  • M5 Command Tank: Turret removed and replaced by box structure.11
  • M5 with T39 Rocket Launcher: T39 launcher mounted on turret top. Fired 20 7.2" rockets. Project only.
  • M5 Dozer: Turret removed and dozer blade added.11 Made in 1944.11 Few had turret remain.
  • M5 or M5A1 with Cullin Hedgerow Device: Prongs added to front of vehicle. Normandy, 1944.
  • M5 with Flame Thrower: Only a prototype.11 Was fitted with the E8 and E9-9 flame guns.11
  • M5 High Speed Tractor:
  • M8 Howitzer Motor Carriage: Had enlarged turret with 75 mm howitzer.11
  • T8 Reconnaissance Vehicle: Removed turret and added mounting for .50 cal MG.11 Used in combat from 1944 - 1945.11
  • T8E1 Reconnaissance Vehicle: Was fitted with racks to carry land mines.11
  • T27, T27E1 81 mm Mortar Motor Carriage: The army wanted a mortar carrier based on the M5A1 chassis.11 The T27 prototype had the turret removed and an armored superstructure installed. The mortar was to fire forward with a 35 degree traverse. A .50 cal MG was also installed. The T27E1 had the mortar lower in the hull so that it didn't stick above the superstructure. Project canceled in April 1944 due to inadequate crew and storage space.
  • T29 4.2" Mortar Motor Carriage: After the T27 was canceled a design that had more space internally and used a smaller mortar was devised, however, this too had too small of space.
  • T82 Howitzer Motor Carriage: Had 75 mm howitzer in a mount in the front of the hull.11 It was intended for jungle warfare but the design was abandoned in May 1945.11

British Use

Nicknamed "Honey" by British calvary regiments. 84 sent to 8th Army in July 1941.1 Used in Burma7, New Guinea7, Iraq7, Britain, NW Europe7, Italy7, and North Africa7. Russia1, China1, New Zealand1, and France received some as well.

The British were reported to like this tank at the time of its introduction. It could go about 10-20 mph faster than their own or enemy tanks, and required less maintenance.

  • Stuart VI: M5 and M5A1.
  • Stuart Kangaroo: Removed turret and added seats.
  • Stuart Recce: As Kangaroo but with various machine guns on pindle mounts.
  • Stuart Command: As Kangaroo but with extra radios.
  • Stuart 18 pdr. SP: At least one Stuart had it's turret replaced by an 18 pdr field gun.

Usage

It was used as a training vehicle, and used as a scouting and reconnaissance vehicle in combat.

Specifications

  M5 light tank, M5 (Stuart VI)
Crew Commander, gunner, driver, co-driver.3
41,3,4,6,12
Radio SCR-50812
OR SCR-52812
OR SCR-53812
Radio - command tank SCR-50612
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 33,000 lb3,12
14.7 tons1,6,7, 15 tons4
14,936 kg6, 14,969 kg1
Length 14' 2.75"3,4,12, 14' 3"1,6,7
4.34 m1,6
Height 7' 6"7, 7' 6.5"3,4,12, 7' 7"1,6
2.3 m1, 2.31 m6
Width 7' 4"7, 7' 4.25"3,4,12, 7' 5"1,6
2.25 m1, 2.26 m6
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 13.75"12
Ground contact length 117"12
Ground pressure 12.4 psi12
Turret ring diameter 46.75"12
Armament  
Main 1: 37 mm M61,3,12
1: 37 mm4
1: 37 mm / 1.46" M66
Secondary  
MG 2: MG4
3: 7.62 (.30 cal) MG1
3: 7.62 mm / 0.3" MG6
2: .30 cal Browning MGs, most had additional MG as AA.3
MG - coaxial 1: .30 cal Browning M1919A5 MG12
MG - hull 1: .30 cal Browning M1919A4 MG12
MG - antiaircraft 1: .30 cal Browning M1919A4 MG12
Side arms .30 cal M2 tripod mount12
.45 cal submachine gun12
Grenades
Quantity  
Main 1231,12, 1333
APC M51B112, APC M51B212, HE M6312, Canister M212
Secondary  
MG 6,2503,12
Side arms .45: 42012
4: Fragmentation Mk II12
2: Offensive Mk III12
4: Smoke HC M812
2: Thermite
Armor Thickness (mm) 123, 12 - 674, 646, 673
Hull Front, Upper 1 1/8"12
Hull Front, Lower 2 - 2.5"12
Hull Sides, Upper 1 - 1 1/8"12
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 1 - 1 1/8"12
Hull Top 0.5"12
Hull Bottom 3/8" - 0.5"12
Turret Front 1.75"12
Turret Sides 1.25"12
Turret Rear 1.25"12
Turret Top 0.5"12
Engine (Make / Model) Cadillac Twin1,3,4,7, Cadillac Series 4212
2: Cadillac Series 426
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Liquid12
Cylinders 2:V-86,7,12
Capacity 346 cu in12
Net HP 110 each6, 1214, 220@4,000 rpm12
Power to weight ratio 15 hp / ton7
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) Hydra-Matic12
6 forward, 1 reverse12; 4 forward, 1 reverse12
Gear ratio - first speed 3.26:112
- second speed 2.26:112
- third speed 1.44:112
- fourth speed 1.00:112
- reverse 3.81:112
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system 12 volt12
Ignition  
Fuel (Type)  
Octane 7012, 8012
Quantity 89 gallons12
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°3,12, hydraulic or hand12
Speed - Road 36 mph3,7,12, 37 mph1,6, 40 mph4
58 kph1, 60 kph6
Speed - Cross Country 24 mph3
Range - Road 100 miles1,3,6,7,12
161 km1,6
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius 21'12
Elevation limits -10° to +20°3,12
Fording depth 3'3,12
Trench crossing 5' 4"3,12
Vertical obstacle 1' 6"3,12
Climbing ability 60%12
Suspension (Type) Vertical volute3, Vertical volute spring12
Wheels each side 412
Wheel size 20"x6"12
Return rollers each side 3
Tracks (Type) T1612
OR T36E612
OR T55E112
Length  
Width 11 5/8"3,12
Number of links 13212
Pitch 5.5"12
Tires  
Track centers/tread 6' 1.5"3,12

Sources:

  1. The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles - The Comprehensive Guide to Over 900 Armored Fighting Vehicles From 1915 to the Present Day, General Editor: Christopher F. Foss, 2002
  2. Panzer Truppen The Complete Guide to the Creation and Combat Employment of Germany's Tank Force 1933-1942, Thomas L. Jentz, 1996
  3. British and American Tanks of World War Two, The Complete Illustrated History of British, American, and Commonwealth Tanks 1933-1945, Peter Chamberlain and Chris Ellis, 1969
  4. Tanks of the World, 1915-1945, Peter Chamberlain, Chris Ellis, 1972
  5. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Chris Bishop, 1998
  6. World War I and II Tanks, George Forty, 2012
  7. Tanks of World War II, Duncan Crow, 1979
  8. Battle Winning Tanks, Aircraft & Warships of World War II, David Miller, 2000
  9. Tank Data, Aberdeen Proving Grounds Series, 1968?
  10. Tank Data 2, Aberdeen Proving Grounds Series, E. J. Hoffschmidt and W. H. Tantum IV, 1969
  11. Airfix Magazine Guide #26 American Tanks of World War 2, Terry Gander and Peter Chamberlain, 1977
  12. The American Arsenal, 1996
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site

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