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United States' M10 3" Gun Motor Carriage, Wolverine

Photos

M10 3" Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer:
United States' M10 Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer
Aberdeen Tank Museum

M10 3" Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer:
United States' M10 Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer
U.S. Army Signal Corp
M10 3" Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer:
United States' M10 Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer
Imperial War Museum

M10 3" Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer at the Patton Museum in Ft Knox, Kentucky:
United States' M10 Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer at the Patton Museum in Ft Knox, Kentucky
Chris Bobo

M10 3" Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer:
United States' M10 Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer Royal Armored Corps Tank Museum

M10 3" Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer with the 899th Tank Destroyer Battalion:
United States' M10 Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer with the 899th Tank Destroyer Battalion US Signal Corps
M10 3" Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer in North Africa:
United States' M10 Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer in North Africa
U.S. Army in World War II - Pictorial Record, 1951, pg 57

M10 3" Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer with the 702nd Tank Destroyer Battalion and a M4 Sherman with the 743rd Tank Battalion with a Culin hedgerow cutter:
United States' M10 Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer with the 702nd Tank Destroyer Battalion and a M4 Sherman with the 743rd Tank Battalion with a Culin hedgerow cutter US Signal Corps
M10 3" Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer:
United States' M10 Gun Motor Carriage tank destroyer
Hobby Master Die Cast Armor:
3404:
Hobby Master 1/72 Armor, 3404, United States' M10

Design

Based on the events in Europe, in 1940 a Tank Destroyer Board and a Tank Destroyer Commander were founded.1 Based on observations of the European battles it was thought the way to deal with fast moving tank columns was to deploy mass quantities of tank destroyers.5

U.S. Army intelligence reports in April 1942 led to a specification for a more powerful tank destroyer. The need was urgent so the design and development was rushed and the design was accepted in September 1942 and put into production.

The M10 was not intended for use in close combat and as a result had thin armor.3

Since the turret was open topped, the crews were vulnerable to grenades, shell bursts, and small arms.1,3,6 To help with this, some tanks were fitted (typically at divisional level) with armored covers.1

Chassis / Hull

The top of the hull was shortened and the armor was reduced to save weight.

The chassis was from the M4A3 Medium Tank with the upper hull and turret were unique to the M10.4 The hull had bosses on it that could have additional armor attached.4

A wading trunk could be fitted to protect the engine, and other waterproofing of the M10 could make it usable during amphibious assaults.1

Main Armament

The 76.2 mm M7 anti-aircraft gun was installed.3,5 M7 gun could penetrate 100 mm at 1,000 yards. Velocity 2,600 ft/sec4, range 16,100 yards. The AP round weighed 15 lb.4 The .50 cal fired at a muzzle velocity of 2,900'/sec.4

Later, during production, due to the 76 mm gun, counterweights had to be mounted on the rear of the turret.1,4

Tank Destroyer Armament Performance

Tank Destroyer Armament Performance

Prototype

Prototype produced by Fisher Body Co.

Production

General Motors and Ford produced them.1

  • M10: 4,9933, 5,0006, ~5,0005
    • Production: September - December 19423,5, September 1942 - December 19436, November - December 1942, November 1942 - December 1943 (Grand Blanc Arsenal)
    • Manufacturer: Grand Blanc Arsenal, Fisher Tank Division (GMC)4
  • M10A1:675 (Grand Blanc), 1,038 (Ford)
    • Manufacturer: Ford, Grand Blanc
    • Production: October 1942 - September 1943 (Ford), September 1943 - November 1943 (Grand Blanc)

Production Comparison

Tank Destroyer Production Comparison

Variants

  • T24 (M9): Used a M3 chassis but was too tall.1
  • T35: Used a M4A1 chassis with an open welded turret.1 In trials it proved to be unsatisfactory.1
  • T35E1: Used a M4A2 chassis.1 This prototype became the M10.1
  • M10: A M4A2 medium hull had a semi-open turret added.3
  • M10A1: Used M4A3 chassis and were only used for training or converted to M35 prime mover.3 Had larger engine grills than the M10.1
  • Full Track Prime Mover M35: M10A1 with turret removed and adding air compressor for towing 155 mm and 240 mm artillery pieces. Crew: 6, 55,000 lb.
  • T72: Attempt to produce a lighter M10, but was cancelled when the M18 was selected.1

 

Usage

Was first used in action in North Africa in 1942.1 In the Pacific they were used at Kwajalein, Okinawa, and the Philippines.1

The M10s primarily outfitted the 106 Tank Destroyer Battalions that were formed by early 1943.3

Flawed Concept

It was found that the tank destroyer concept was found to be flawed and as a result most M10s were used as assault tanks.5

Russian Service

The Soviet Union received 10.1

Free French

The Free French used many of the M10s and M10A1s.1

British Service

The British Army used M10s primarily in Italy and France.

  • Wolverine: M10 and M10A1.
  • Achilles Mk IC: M10 with 17 pdr.3,4 Late 1944.
  • Achilles Mk IIC: M10A1 with 17 pdr. Used in early 1945 with 21st Army Group.

Specifications

  M10
Crew Commander, driver, gun crew (3).2
51,2,3,4,5,6
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 59,600 lb4, 65,861 lb5, 66,000 lb2,3
28.6 tons1,6
29,028 kg1, 29,937 kg3,5
Length 19' 1"6, 19' 7"1,2, 19' 7 1/8"4, 22' 5"3,5
5.82 m6, 5.97 m1, 6.83 m3,5
Height 8' 1.5"2, 8' 1 5/16"4, 8' 2"1,6, 8' 5"3,5
2.49 m1,6, 2.57 m3,5
Width 10'1,2,3,4,5,6
3.05 m1,3,5,6
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 17 1/8", 17 3/8"4
Ground contact length 12' 3"4
Ground pressure 12.3 psi, 13.5 psi4
Turret ring diameter 5' 9"
Armament  
Main 1: 3" (76.2 mm) M71,2,3,4,5
1: 76 / 2.99" M76
Secondary  
MG 1: 12.7 mm (.50 cal) MG1
1: 12.7 mm (.50 cal) Browning MG3,5
1: 12.7 mm / 0.5" MG6
MG - anti-aircraft 1: .50 cal MG2
1: .50 cal HB M2 MG4
Side arms M3 .50 cal tripod mount
5: M1 carbines
Grenades
Smoke pots
Quantity  
Main 542,4,6 (HE, AP, APC, Canister, Smoke)
Secondary  
MG 3002, 3504
Side arms .30: 450
Grenades: 12
Smoke pots: 4
Armor Thickness (mm) 122, 12 - 375, 372,6
(Actual thickness at horizontal)
Hull Front, Upper 1.5"@0°4, 0.5-2" (3.25")
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 0.75-1""@0°4, (1-1 3/8")
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 0.375"@0°4, 1-1.5"
Hull Top 3/8-0.75"
Hull Bottom 0.25"
Turret Front 2.25"@0°4, 2.5" (4.5")
Turret Sides 1""@0°4, (1 1/8-1.75")
Turret Rear 1" (1 1/8-1.75")
Turret Top 0.75
Engine (Make / Model) Twin GM S6-711,2
2: General Motors3,5
GMC Twin Diesel4
2: GM S6-716
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Water4
Cylinders 63,5, 124
Capacity  
Net HP 4004
375 each3,5
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) Synchromesh4
5 forward, 1 reverse4
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Diesel3,4,5,6
Octane  
Quantity 164 gallons4
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°2,4
Manual4
Speed - Road 26 mph4, 30 mph1,2,6, 32 mph3,5
48 kph1,6, 51 kph3,5
Speed - Cross Country 20 mph2
Range - Road 200 miles1,2,3,4,5,6
322 km1,3,5,6
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits -10° to +19°2
Fording depth 3'2,3,4,5
0.91 m3,5
Trench crossing 7' 5"3,4,5, 7' 6"2
2.26 m3,5
Vertical obstacle 1' 6"3,4,5, 2'2
0.46 m3,5
Climbing ability 25° slope4
Suspension (Type) Vertical volute2
Vertical volute springing4
Wheels each side 6
3 two wheel bogies4
Return rollers each side 34
Tracks (Type) Steel, rubber pads, rubber bushed track pins4
Length  
Width 12 1/16"4, 16.5"2
Diameter  
Number of links 794
Pitch 6"4
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread 6' 11"2,4
  M10A1
Crew Commander, driver, gun crew (3).2
52
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 64,000 lb
Length 19' 7"2
Height 8' 1.5"2
Width 10'2
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 17 1/8"
Ground contact length 12' 3"
Ground pressure 12.3 psi
Turret ring diameter 5' 9"
Armament  
Main 1: 3" M72
Secondary  
MG  
MG - anti-aircraft 1: .50 cal MG2
Side arms M3 .50 cal tripod mount
5: M1 carbines
Grenades
Smoke pots
Quantity  
Main 542 (HE, AP, APC, Canister, Smoke)
Secondary  
MG 3002
Side arms .30: 450
Grenades: 12
Smoke pots: 4
Armor Thickness (mm) 122, 372
(Actual thickness at horizontal)
Hull Front, Upper 0.5-2" (3.25")
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 0.75-1" (1-1 3/8")
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 1-1.5"
Hull Top 3/8-0.75"
Hull Bottom 0.25"
Turret Front 2.5" (4.5")
Turret Sides 1" (1 1/8-1.75")
Turret Rear 1" (1 1/8-1.75")
Turret Top 0.75
Engine (Make / Model) Ford GAA2,4
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Water4
Cylinders V-84
Capacity  
Net HP 5004
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline4
Octane  
Quantity 192 gallons4
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°2
Speed - Road 30 mph2
Speed - Cross Country 20 mph2
Range - Road 155 miles4, 160 miles, 200 miles2
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits -10° to +19°2
Fording depth 3'2
Trench crossing 7' 6"2
Vertical obstacle 2'2
Climbing ability  
Suspension (Type) Vertical volute.2
Wheels each side 6
Return rollers each side 3
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width 16.5"2
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread 6' 11"2

Sources:

  1. The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles - The Comprehensive Guide to Over 900 Armored Fighting Vehicles From 1915 to the Present Day, General Editor: Christopher F. Foss, 2002
  2. British and American Tanks of World War Two, The Complete Illustrated History of British, American, and Commonwealth Tanks 1933-1945, Peter Chamberlain and Chris Ellis, 1969
  3. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Chris Bishop, 1998
  4. Tank Data 2, Aberdeen Proving Grounds Series, E. J. Hoffschmidt and W. H. Tantum IV, 1969
  5. Armored Fighting Vehicles, 300 of the World's Greatest Military Vehicles, Philip Trewhitt, 1999
  6. World War I and II Tanks, George Forty, 2012
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site