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Japan's Imperial Navy flag

Japan's Aichi E16A Zuiun (auspicious cloud, cloud of good omens)
Allied Code Name: Paul

Photos

  • Aichi E16A Zuiun floatplane

 

Design

The Aichi E16A floatplane was designed to be a successor to the Aichi E13A. In October 1940 Kishiro Matsuo and Yasushiro Ozawa started design work on the Aichi AM-22 and in January 1941 the Imperial Japanese Navy put out the 16-Shi specification which was basically the AM-22 design. In July 1941 the requirements were modified and the AM-22 became the E16A1.

The E16A was of an all metal construction except for the wing tips and the tail, which were wood.

Stop Gap Dive Bomber

The E16A was modified by installing hydraulically operated dive brakes to allow it to dive bomb with one or two 500 lb / 250 kg bombs.

Prototype

The E16A prototype flew in May 1942. In August 1943 the final prototype was built.

Production

  • AM-22 prototype: 3
    • Manufacturer: Aichi Kokuki K.K.
    • Production: 1942
  • Aichi E16A1: 252
    • Manufacturer: Aichi Kokuki K.K. at Eitoku (193), Nippon Hikoki K.K. at Tomioka (59)
    • Production: January 1944 - May 1945 (Aichi), August 1944 - August 1945 (Nippon)
  • Aichi E16A2: 1
    • Manufacturer: Aichi Kokuki K.K. at Eitoku
    • Production: 1944
  • Total: 256
    • Manufacturer: Aichi Kokuki K.K., Nippon Hikoki K.K.

Variants

  • AM-22 prototype:
  • Aichi E16A1: Production model.
  • Aichi E16A2: The engine was a Mitsubishi Kinsei 62 (1,560 HP). Was in prototype stage at end of war.

Usage

Units

  • Kokutais: 301st, 634th, Yokosuka

Became Operational

In January 1944 the E16A became operational in the Japanese Navy. They were deployed to the Philippine Islands a few months later where they suffered heavy losses.

Okinawa

The few surviving E16A1s were used in suicide attacks around Okinawa.

Specifications

  Prototypes
Type Reconnaissance floatplane
Crew 2
Engine (Type) Mitsubishi MK8A Kinsei 51
Cylinders Radial 14
Cooling Air
Net HP 1,300
Propeller blades 3 metal constant speed
Dimensions  
Span 41' 8"
12.7 m
Armament  
Wings 2: 7.7 mm Type 97
Cockpit - Rear 1: 7.7 mm Type 92
Bombs 397 lb
180 kg
  Aichi E16A
Type Reconnaissance floatplane
Crew 2
Engine (Type) Mitsubishi Kinsei 51 or 54
Cylinders Radial 14
Net HP 1,300
Propeller blades 3
Dimensions  
Span 42'
12.8 m
Length 35' 6.5"
10.83 m
Height 15' 8.5"
4.78 m
Weight  
Empty 6,493 lb
2,945 kg
Load - Normal 8,380 lb
3,800 kg
Load - Maximum 10,038 lb
4,553 kg
Performance  
Speed at 18,045' / 5,500 m 274 mph
440 kph
Speed - cruising 207 mph
333 kph
Climb to 9,840' / 3,000 m 4.7 minutes
Service ceiling 32,810'
10,000 m
Range 600 miles
965 kg
Range - Maximum 1,504 miles
2,420 km
Armament  
Wings 2: 20 mm
Rear cockpit 1: 13 mm MG
Bombs 1: 550 lb
1: 250 kg
OR 2: 550 lb
2: 250 kg
  E16A1
Type Reconnaissance floatplane
Crew 2
Engine (Type) - Early Production Mitsubishi MK8A Kinsei 51
Engine (Type) - Late Production Mitsubishi MK8D Kinsei 54
Cylinders Radial 14
Cooling Air
Net HP 1,300
Propeller blades 3 metal constant speed
Dimensions  
Span 42' 11/32"
12.81 m
Length 35' 6.5"
10.833 m
Height 15' 8 5/8"
4.791 m
Wing area 301.388 sq ft
28 sq m
Weight  
Empty 6,493 lb
2,945 kg
Load - Normal 8,598 lb
3,900 kg
Load - Maximum 10,038 lb
4,553 kg
Performance  
Speed at 18,045' / 5,500 m 273 mph
237 knots
Speed - Cruising at 16,405' / 5,000 m 207 mph
180 knots
Climb to 9,840' / 3,000 m 4 minutes 40 seconds
Service Ceiling 32,810'
10,000 m
Range 731 statute miles
635 nautical miles
Range - Maximum 1,504 statute miles
1,307 nautical miles
Armament  
Wings 2: 20 mm Type 99 Model 2
Cockpit - Rear 1: 13 mm Type 2
Bombs 551 lb
250 kg
  E16A2
Type Reconnaissance floatplane
Crew 2
Engine (Type) Mitsubishi MK8P Kinsei 62
Cylinders Radial 14
Cooling Air
Net HP 1,560
Propeller blades 3 metal constant speed

Sources:

  1. Aircraft of WWII, Stewart Wilson, 1998
  2. World War II Airplanes Volume 2, Enzo Angelucci, Paolo Matricardi, 1976
  3. Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, René J Francillon, 1970
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site