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Japan's Kawasaki Ki-48 bomber; Army Type 99
Allied code name: Lily

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Kawasaki Ki-48, "Lily" bomber:
Japan's Kawasaki Ki-48, "Lily" bomber

Design

The Kawasaki Ki-48 was based on the Soviet Tupolev SB-2 that was encountered in the Sino-Japanese conflict.1,2 The SB-2 was faster than the Japanese fighters that tried to intercept it.2 Specifications were for a bomber that could go 300 mph at 10,000', climb to 16,250' in ten minutes, and carry 880 lbs of bombs.2 Takeo Doi, started design work in early 1938.2

Prototype

The prototype first flew July 1939.1,2 Alterations to the prototype were made because of tail vibrations.2

Production

Due to delays in resources being allocated to the Ki-45 and tail flutter in the Ki-48 the production model didn't fly until July 1940.1

The Ki-48-II first flew in February 1942.1

  • Prototypes and pre production: 91
  • Kawasaki Ki-48-I: 5571,2
  • Kawasaki Ki-48-II: 1,4082, 1,4111
    • Production: April 1942 - October 19442
  • Total: 1,9771,2
    • Manufacturer: Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo K.K.2
    • Production: July 1940 - October 19442

Variants

  • Kawasaki Ki-48-I:
  • Kawasaki Ki-48-Ia: Equipment changes and new gun mounts.1
  • Kawasaki Ki-48-Ib: Equipment changes and new gun mounts.1
  • Kawasaki Ki-48-II: The Ha-115 engines had two stage superchargers.1 The engines were more powerful.2 Fuselage was lengthened to increase stability.1 More armor protection for the crew.1,2 Fuel had more armor protection.1,2
  • Kawasaki Ki-48-IIa: Standard bomber.1
  • Kawasaki Ki-48-IIb: Dive bomber.1 Retractable dive brakes.1
  • Kawasaki Ki-48-IIc: Better defensive armament.1,2

Usage

The Ki-48 was first used in Northern China in late 1940.1,2

Kamikaze

At the end of the war most Ki-48s were packed with 1,764 lb / 800 kg of explosives and the nose had long percussion mounted rod fuses.1 These were then used in Kamikaze attacks.1

Specifications

  Kawasaki Ki-48-I1
Type Bomber1
Crew 41
Engine (Type) 2: Nakajima Ha-251
Cylinders Radial 141
Cooling  
Net HP 1,000 each1
Propeller blades 3 each1
Dimensions  
Span  
Length  
Height  
Wing area  
Weight  
Empty 8,929 lb1
4,050 kg1
Loaded 13,337 lb1
6,050 kg1
Performance  
Speed @ 11,485' /
3,500 m
298 mph1
480 kph1
Cruising speed 217 mph1
349 kph1
Climb to 16,405' /
5,000 m
9 minutes1
Service ceiling 31,170'1
9,500 m1
Range 1,230 miles1
1,980 km1
Armament  
Nose 1: 7.7 mm MG1
Dorsal 1: 7.7 mm MG1
Ventral 1: 7.7 mm MG1
Bombs 882 lb1
400 kg1
  Kawasaki Ki-48-II1,2
Type Bomber1,2
Crew 41,2
Engine (Type) 2: Nakajima Ha-1151,2
Cylinders Radial 141,2
Cooling Air2
Net HP 1,130 each1,2
Propeller blades 3 each1
Dimensions  
Span 57' 3"1,3
17.45 m1
Length 41' 10"1,3
12.75 m1
Height 12' 5.5"1, 12' 6"2
3.8 m1
Wing area  
Weight  
Empty 10,031 lb1
4,550 kg1
Loaded 14,330 lb2, 14,881 lb1
6,750 kg1
Performance  
Speed @ 18,375' /
9,500 m
314 mph1,2
505 kph1
Cruising speed  
Climb to 16,405' /
5,000 m
8.5 minutes1
Service ceiling 33,135'1,2
10,100 m1
Range 1,274 miles1, 1,491 miles2
2,050 km1
Armament 3: MG2
Nose 1: 7.7 mm MG1
Dorsal 1: 7.7 mm MG1
Ventral 1: 7.7 mm MG1
Bombs 882 lb2, 1,764 lb1
800 kg1

Sources:

  1. Aircraft of WWII, Stewart Wilson, 1998
  2. World War II Airplanes Volume 1, Enzo Angelucci, Paolo Matricardi, 1976
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site