Canada's Cruiser Ram, Kangaroo

Photos

Ram
Canada's Ram Cruiser Tank
Ram Mk I
Canada's Ram Mk I Cruiser Tank
Royal Armored Corps Tank Museum
Ram Mk I
Canada's Ram Mk I Cruiser Tank
U.S. Ordnance Dept.
Ram Mk II
Canada's Ram Mk II Cruiser Tank
Kangaroo
Canada's Kangaroo
Kangaroos entering s'Hertogenbosch, Holland, in October 1944
Canada's Kangaroo
Bovington Tank Museum (Mark Holloway)

Design

In 1940 the Montreal Locomotive Works designed a tank based on the turret from an American M3 Lee with a cast steel hull.4,7 Some believe this is where the US designers got the idea for the Sherman.

Crew

Had a cast hull with the driver on the right in the front.

Machine Gun Turret

There was a machine gun turret on the left side. This had a .3" machine gun and could traverse 120° left and 50° right.

Turret

The turret was also cast with the mantlet being bolted on. A few of the vehicles were produced with shoulder controlled 2 pdr guns as the 6 pdr wasn't available.

Kangaroos

The Canadians had converted some Priests to be infantry carriers, however, these were too tall so an alternative was needed.5 The Canadians had used Ram tanks as training vehicles in Britain and were not being used.5 500 of them were moved to a Canadian workshop in France code named "Kangaroo."5 These had the turret and other equipment removed and two bench seats were installed.5

Climbing rings were welded on the sides to assist the infantryman in getting into the Kangaroos.5 The infantrymen's weapons couldn't be used from inside the Kangaroo and there was no overhead protection.5

Prototype

By June 19416 the first prototype was completed at the Montreal Locomotive Works and sent to the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland for evaluation.

Production

  • 1941: 1,094, 2,1504
  • Ram Mk II: 1942-1943: 1,899
  • Kangaroo: 500 converted5

Variants

  • Cruiser Ram Mk I: It was intended to be produced with a 6 pdr gun, however these weren't finalized so the first 50 were with 2 pdr guns.
  • Cruiser Ram Mk II: Full production version which began in January 1942 and ended in July 1943. Eliminated the hull side doors, improved the suspension, modified the clutch, and installed new air cleaners. The MG turret was replaced by a more traditional ball mounting. The gun also had a gyrostabilizer.
  • Ram Kangaroo: Turret was removed and benches were installed.5 11 men plus 2 crew carried. Hand and foot grips were added to outside hull.5
  • Ram Gun Tower: Kangaroo with towing hook for 17 pdr anti tank gun. Crew and ammo carried in vehicle.
  • Ram Ammunition Carrier "Wallaby": Like Kangaroo but carried 25 pdr ammo for Sexton.
  • Ram OP/Command: Ram II used for command or observation. Used dummy gun which could only be traversed 90° by hand, and had extra radio equipment. The rotating hatch was calibrated so that the hatch periscope could be used as a direction finder. Browning machine guns were installed in the bow and the turret hatch. 84 built in 1943. Crew of 6.
  • Ram GPO: Like OP but with special equipment for gun position officers of SP artillery regiments. Had Tannoy loudspeakers mounted.
  • Ram ARV Mk I: Ram I converted to ARV by adding winch.
  • Ram ARV Mk II: Ram II fitted with fixed dummy turret and dummy gun. Jib and earth spade added.
  • Ram AVRE: 2 vehicles converted by Royal engineers in 1943. Churchill was used instead.
  • Ram QF 3.7" AA: Mount for 3.7" AA gun.6 Project abandoned.
  • Ram Flame throwers "Badger": Converted by Canadian Army to use Wasp II flame throwing equipment installed in place of the bow MG. Used in Holland in 1945.
  • Ram with 75 mm gun: Installed American 75 mm M3 gun. Project abandoned.
  • Ram Searchlight: Units in Europe added 40" searchlights and used for night operations.

Usage

By the end of 1941 they were being shipped to Canadian units in England.4 Used by the 4th and 5th Canadian Armored Divisions until they were replaced by Shermans. Most of the tanks were used for training in Canada and Britain as the US was able to start producing enough tanks for Canadian use.4,7 Many were converted to special tanks.

Kangaroo Usage

Many were used by the British 79th Armored Division and Canadian Divisions. The Kangaroos started reaching the frontline units in September 1944.5

Kangaroos were first used at Le Havre.5 The 7th Infantry Division used them last on May 3, 1945, at Hamburg.5

Occasionally the Kangaroos were used to carry ammunition and fuel to troops that were under fire.5

Specifications

  Ram
Crew Commander, driver, co-driver, gunner, loader.
51
Passengers  
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 64,000 lb, 65,000 lb
29,030 kg
Length 18' 8", 19'
Height 8' 9"
Width 9' 5"
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 1' 5"
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure 13.3 psi
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main  
Secondary  
MG 3: 7.62 mm MG1
MG - anti aircraft .30 M1919A Browning
MG - coaxial .30 M1919A Browning
MG - hull .30 M1919A Browning
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main  
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm)  
Hull Front, Upper  
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper  
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Turret Front  
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model) Wright Continental R-975-EC21
Bore / stroke  
Cooling  
Cylinders  
Capacity  
Net HP  
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type)  
Octane  
Quantity  
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road 25 mph
Speed - Cross Country 20 mph
Range - Road 144 miles
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits +20° to -7.5°, -10°
Fording depth 3'
Trench crossing 7' 5"
Vertical obstacle 1' 6", 2'
Climbing ability  
Suspension (Type) Vertical volute
Wheels each side 6
Return rollers each side 3
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width 1' 4.5"
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread 6' 11"
  Ram Mk I
Crew Commander, driver, co-driver, gunner, loader.2
52,3,7
Passengers  
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 64,000 lb3, 64,864 lb7, 65,000 lb2
29,484 kg7
Length 19'2,3,7
5.79 m7
Height 8' 9"2,3,7
2.667 m7
Width 9' 1"2, 9' 5"3, 9' 6"7
2.895 m7
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 1: 2 pdr. OQF2
1: 2 pdr.3,4,6,7
Secondary  
MG 2: .30 cal Browning MG2
3: MG3
MG - anti aircraft 1: .50 cal Browning MG2
MG - coaxial 2: 7.62 mm MG7
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 1712
Secondary  
MG .30: 4,4402
4,275
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 252, 872
1" - 3.5"3
Hull Front, Upper  
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper  
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Turret Front  
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model) Continental R-9752,7, Continental R-975-EC23
Bore / stroke  
Cooling  
Cylinders Radial7
Capacity  
Net HP 4007
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline7
Octane  
Quantity  
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°2
MG: 120° left, 50° right
Speed - Road 25 mph2,3,7
40.2 kph7
Speed - Cross Country 20 mph2
Range - Road 144 miles2,7
232 km7
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits -7.5° to +20°2
Fording depth 3'2
Trench crossing 7' 5"2,7
2.26 m7
Vertical obstacle 1' 6"2, 2'7
0.61 m7
Climbing ability  
Suspension (Type) Vertical volute.2
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width 15.5"2
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread 6' 11"2
  Ram Mk II
Crew Commander, driver, co-driver, gunner, loader.2
52,3,6
Passengers  
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 65,000 lb2,3,4,6
29,484 kg1,4,6
29 tons1
Length w/gun 19'1,2,3,4,6
5.79 m4,6, 5.791 m1
Length w/o gun  
Height 8' 9"1,2,3,4,6
2.667 m1,4,6
Width 9' 1"1,2,3, 9' 6"4,6
2.768 m1, 2.895 m4,6
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 6 pdr. (57 mm)1 OQF
6 pdr. OQF2
6 pdr.3,4,6
Secondary  
MG 2: .30 cal Browning MG2
3: MGs3
MG - anti aircraft .50 cal Browning MG2
MG - coaxial MG6
MG - hull MG6
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 922
Secondary  
MG .30: 4,4402
4,000
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 252, 871,2, 25-896
1" - 3.5"3
Hull Front, Upper  
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper  
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Turret Front  
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model) Continental R-9752,4,6
Continental R975-C13 OR
Continental R-975-EC23
Bore / stroke  
Cooling  
Cylinders Radial6
Capacity  
Net HP 4006
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline6
Octane  
Quantity  
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°2
Speed - Road 25 mph1,2,3,4,6
40.2 kph4,6, 40.23 kph1
Speed - Cross Country 20 mph2
Range - Road 144 miles1,2,4,6
232 km1,4,6
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits -7.5° to +20°2
Fording depth 3'2
Trench crossing 7' 5"2,4
2.26 m4
Vertical obstacle 1' 6"2, 2'4
0.61 m4
Climbing ability 60%6
Suspension (Type) Vertical volute.2
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width 15.5"2
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread 6' 11"2
  Ram Command / OP
Crew 63
Passengers  
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 64,000 lb3
Length 19'3
Height 9'3
Width 9' 1"3
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 2: MGs3
Secondary  
MG  
MG - anti aircraft  
MG - coaxial  
MG - hull  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main  
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 1" - 3.5"3
Hull Front, Upper  
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper  
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Turret Front  
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model) Continental R975-C13
Bore / stroke  
Cooling  
Cylinders  
Capacity  
Net HP  
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type)  
Octane  
Quantity  
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse  
Speed - Road 25 mph3
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road  
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth  
Trench crossing  
Vertical obstacle  
Climbing ability  
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width  
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  
  Kangaroo
Crew 25
Passengers 105
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 25,400 kg5
25 tons5
Length 19'5
5.79 m5
Height 6' 3"5
1.91 m5
Width 9' 1"5
2.77 m5
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 1: 0.303" Browning MG5
1: 7.7 mm Browning MG5
Secondary  
MG  
MG - anti aircraft  
MG - coaxial  
MG - hull  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main  
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 605
Hull Front, Upper  
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper  
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Turret Front  
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model) Continental R-9755
Bore / stroke  
Cooling  
Cylinders  
Capacity  
Net HP 4005
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline5
Octane  
Quantity  
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse  
Speed - Road 25 mph5
40 kph5
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 144 miles5
232 km5
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth  
Trench crossing  
Vertical obstacle  
Climbing ability  
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width  
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  

Sources:

  1. The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles - The Comprehensive Guide to Over 900 Armored Fighting Vehicles From 1915 to the Present Day, General Editor: Christopher F. Foss, 2002
  2. British and American Tanks of World War Two, The Complete Illustrated History of British, American, and Commonwealth Tanks 1933-1945, Peter Chamberlain and Chris Ellis, 1969
  3. Tanks of the World, 1915-1945, Peter Chamberlain, Chris Ellis, 1972
  4. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Chris Bishop, 1998
  5. World Encyclopedia of Armored Fighting Vehicles, Jack Livesey, 2006
  6. Tanks - Over 250 of the World's Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles, Chris Chant, 2004
  7. Armored Fighting Vehicles, 300 of the World's Greatest Military Vehicles, Philip Trewhitt, 1999
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site

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